8 Xerophthalmia Disease, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Xerophthalmia disease, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. Vitamin A deficiency is still a problem that is spread throughout the world, especially in developing countries and can occur at all ages, especially during growth. Vitamin A deficiency in the body can cause various types of diseases which are Nutrition Related Diseases which can affect various types of anatomy and function of body organs such as lowering the immune system and reducing epithelial skin cells. One of the effects of lack of vitamin A is an eye disorder that commonly occurs in children aged 6 months - 4 years who are the main cause of blindness in developing countries (Xerophthalmia).

8 Xerophthalmia Disease, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome
Vitamin A deficiency in children usually occurs in children who suffer from protein or malnutrition as a result of nutrient intake is very lacking, including micronutrients such as vitamin A. Children who suffer from vitamin A deficiency are easily attacked by other infections due to the child's endurance decrease. But the problem of Vitamin A Deficiency can also occur in families with enough income. This happens because of lack of parental knowledge about good nutrition. Impaired intestinal absorption can also cause Vitamin A deficiency even though this is very rare.

Xerophthalmia Disease, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Lack of food consumption of less than 80% of prolonged nutritional adequacy will cause children to suffer from Vitamin A Deficiency, which generally occurs due to poverty, where families are unable to provide sufficient food. Until now the problem of Vitamin A Deficiency in the Country is still showing concern. Xerophthalmia ranging from mild to severe levels even causes blindness. Xerophthalmia is still a lot in the community that has not been discovered and reported by health workers.

Therefore, it is very important to detect it early and to overcome this xerophthalmia disease quickly and accurately so that there is no lifelong blindness. What is Xerophthalmia ? Xerophthalmia is a term that explains vitamin A deficiency disorders in the eye, including the occurrence of eyeball anatomic abnormalities and impaired retinal cell function that results in blindness. Vitamin A deficiency is still a problem that is spread all over the world, especially in developing countries and can occur at all ages, especially during growth.

Risk Factors Xerophthalmia

Risk factors for xerophthalmia can be influenced by the following three factors.
Socio-cultural, environmental and health services factors:

1. The existence of famine or food insecurity

2. There are restrictions on certain foods, especially those is a source of Vitamin A

3. Availability of food sources of vitamin A

4. Lack of availability of clean water and unhealthy environmental sanitation

5. Circumstances include natural disasters.

6. Diet or eating method

7. Immunization coverage

8. Health care facilities that are difficult to reach

Family Factors:

1. Low family income will be more at risk of experiencing vitamin A deficiency. Nevertheless the amount of family income does not guarantee that the child does not experience vitamin A deficiency, because it must be balanced with adequate nutritional knowledge so that it can provide foods rich in vitamin A.

2. Low parental education will be at higher risk of the possibility of their child suffering from vitamin A deficiency, because low education is usually accompanied by socioeconomic conditions and lack of nutritional knowledge.

3. Childcare patterns that lead to a lack of family attention to child growth and development.

4. The number of children in the family if more and more, then the child is less and less attentive to parents in caring for their children.

Individual Factors:

1. Children who do not get breast milk and are not given ASI until the age of 2 years.

2. Children with Low Birth Weight less than <2.5 kg

3. Malnourished children.

5. Frequency of visits to posyandu, puskesmas or health services to get vitamin A and immunization.

6. Children suffering from infectious diseases such as diarrhea, Tuberculosis, Acute Respiratory Infection, measles, pneumonia and helminthiasis.

Signs and Symptoms of Xerophthalmia

Xerophthalmia is usually the result of progressive lack of vitamin A. lack of vitamin A can cause systemic abnormalities that affect epithelial tissue from organs throughout the body, including the lungs, intestines, eyes and other organs, but images that are characteristic directly visible in the eye. Skin disorders are generally seen in the lower limbs of the front and upper arms of the back, the skin looks dry and scaly. This disorder is caused by lack of vitamin A can also be caused by lack of essential fatty acids, lack of vitamin B or lack of protein or poor nutrition.

Symptoms of lack of vitamin A in the eyes will arise if the body has a lack of vitamin A for a long time. These symptoms will occur more quickly if the child has measles, diarrhea, infectious diseases and others. Signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency in the eye are as follows :

Eye fatigue.

The view becomes blurred.

Decreased ability in work that requires visual acuity and accuracy.

Pain and eyes become red.

The eyelids become thick.

The next sign or symptom of xerophthalmia is not able to see in dim light. This condition will get worse if followed by the onset of Bitot's spot and corneal ulcer. If not overcome immediately, the most severe symptoms can occur when part or all of the cornea becomes liquid leading to blindness.

Causes of Xerophthalmia

The cause of xerophthalmia is due to lack of vitamin A. Factors that cause high cases of xerophthalmia include:

1. There is liver damage such as kwashiorkor and chronic hepatitis, cause interference with the formation of Retinol Binding Protein which is important in absorption of vitamin A.

2. Babies are not given ASI for 2 years.

3. Consumption of foods that do not contain enough vitamin A in the long term.

4. There is a disorder of absorption of vitamin A as in diseases such as chronic diarrhea and others.

5. The diet is not balanced, which is less fat, protein or other nutrients needed for the absorption of vitamin A in the body.

How to Overcome Xerophthalmia

If xerophthalmia is not severe, then the way to overcome xerophthalmia is in the form of giving vitamin A. This needs to be done especially for patients diagnosed with night blindness. The provision of vitamin A aims to overcome symptoms and help the eyes re-produce fluid in the eye. To help speed up overcoming xerophthalmia, it is recommended to:

Using cleaning tools or moisturizing air in the room.

Rest your eyes after doing activities that require long-term visual acuity such as being in front of a computer.

Avoid climate or dry room conditions.

Wear protective glasses that can slow the evaporation of water from the surface of the eye.
Thus reviews of xerophthalmia disease, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. In this paper, the aim is for the reader to know more about xerophthalmia, and thank you for reading.

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