4 Wilms Tumors, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Wilms tumors, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. What is Wilms tumor ? Wilms tumor, also known as nefroblastoma, is a cancer of the kidneys that primarily affects children, is the most common type of kidney cancer in children, with the highest incidence at the age of 3 years, and rarely occurs over the age of 8 years. Wilms tumor which is a genitourianaria malignancy is most common in children with embryonal trifase neoplasms which are the result of the proliferation of blastema, stroma and epithelium. This tumor constitutes 8% of malignancies in children and is ranked fifth of tumors in children, after tumors in central nervous system, lymphoma, neuroblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma. However, this tumor is one of the leading causes of death in children.

Wilms Tumors, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome
Wilms Tumors
This tumor incidence is almost the same in every country, new cases of Wilms tumors are found every year in America. Of all cancer cases in children 6% are Wilms tumors. Wilms tumors occur most often in children of very young age and rarely occur in children after 6 years of age. Wilms tumors are found in many different sexes and there is no predilection for the nation or race. Wilms tumors are the most common intra-abdominal tumors in children. This tumor is an embryonal neoplasm of the kidney, usually as an asymptomatic mass in the upper abdomen or waist.

Wilms Tumors, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Tumors are often found when parents bathe or wear their children's clothes or when doctors perform physical examinations of healthy-looking children. These tumors often occur between the ages of 1 and 3 years. Wilms tumor usually attacks only one kidney, only 5% of cases attack both kidneys. Wilms tumor is a kidney embryonal malignant tumor derived from methanephros. Another name for this tumor is nephroblastoma or renal embryoma. This tumor was first reported by Runce in 1814, but the name of the tumor "Wilms" came from a surgeon (Max Wilms) who revealed a complete classic picture of the disease in 1899.

Wilms tumors are malignant mixed kidney tumors that grow rapidly, formed from embryonic elements, usually regarding children before the age of five. Wilms tumor (Nefroblastoma) is a kidney tumor that grows from the primitive selembrional diginjal. Wilms tumor is usually found in children who are less than 5 years old. Wilms tumor is the most common intra-abdominal tumor in children. The National Wilms Tumor Study divides the five stages of Wilms tumor, namely:

First Stadium
The tumor is confined to the kidney tissue without penetrating the capsule. This tumor can be completely resected.

Second Stadium
The tumor penetrates the capsule then extends to the kidney tissue and then around kidney, namely perirenal tissue, renal hilar, renal veins and para-aortal lymph nodes. The tumor can still be completely resected.

Third Stadium
Tumors spread to the abdominal cavity (perkontinuitatum), for example to the liver, peritoneum, and others.

Fourth Stadium
Tumors spread hematogenously to the abdominal cavity, lungs, brain, bones.
How to spread wilms tumors, namely after exiting the kidney capsule, the tumor will invade the surrounding organs and spread lymphogenously through the aortic lymph nodes.

Hematogenous spread through the venarenalis to the vena cava then leads to 85% pulmonary metastasis and 10% liver even at an advanced stage to spread to the contralateral kidney.

Signs or Symptoms of Wilms Tumors

In general, Wilms tumor sufferers do not show clear symptoms, but do not rule out the possibility of some symptoms such as:

Pain, discomfort, or swelling in the abdomen.


Color changes in urine or blood in urine.

Feeling weak and tired quickly.

Nausea and vomiting.

Unbalanced body growth.

High blood pressure causes dizziness, chest pain, and shortness of breath.

Decreased appetite.

Causes of Wilms Tumors

Until now the cause of Wilms tumor is not known with certainty. Even so, there are several factors that can increase the risk of a child being exposed to tumors wilms including:

Abnormalities from birth
It is estimated that about 10% of Wilms tumor cases occur due to abnormalities experienced from birth, such as aniridia, hemihypertrophy, cryptorchidism, or hypospadias.

Disease or syndrome
Some diseases or syndromes can also trigger wilms tumors.

Although certain hereditary factors can increase a child's risk of developing Wilms tumor, this condition is not derived directly from parents to children. Only 2% of children with Wilms tumor have family status with the same condition.

How to Overcome Wilms Tumors

In how to overcome Wilms tumor can be done several ways such as surgery and chemotherapy. However, it depends on the stage level of the Wilms tumor and also depends on the condition of the patient. Here's how to treat wilms tumors including:

For Operation
There are two choices that might be done to remove the tumor, namely partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy. In partial nephrectomy will remove the entire tumor and part of the tissue around the tumor. This method is chosen if the tumor is still small or if the second kidney of the patient is still functioning properly.

Whereas in radical nephrectomy will remove the entire kidney and surrounding tissue. However, if the tumor attacks both kidneys, it may remove both of the patient's kidneys. The kidney that is removed will then be replaced with a donor kidney or the patient will need dialysis assistance for life.

With Chemotherapy
If Wilms tumor cannot be removed or has a large enough size, chemotherapy can be done. This method works to kill cancer cells. Sometimes chemotherapy is combined with surgery, which is to shrink the tumor before surgery or kill the remnants of cancer cells.

With Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy can also be an option for patients with tumors that have spread to other body organs. This therapy uses high enough radiation rays and is directed at infected parts of the body in order to kill existing cancer cells.

In general, Wilms tumors can be cured completely, but this still depends on the severity of the tumor, the age and condition of the patient's own body. In addition, some things such as maintaining cleanliness, regulating the diet and allowing normal life are also things that need to be considered.

Thus reviews of wilms tumors, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. In this paper, the aim is for the reader to know more about Wilms tumors, and thank you for reading.

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