2 Vertigo, Symptoms, Causes and How to Overcome

Vertigo, symptoms, causes and how to overcome. What is Vertigo ? Vertigo is a term derived from Latin vertere, which means to rotate. In general, vertigo is known as a moving illusion or hallucinatory movement. Vertigo is found in the form of complaints of feeling spinning or feeling moving from the surrounding environment (circular vertigo) but sometimes also found complaints of feeling pushed or pulled away from the vertical plane (linear vertical). Vertigo is not a disease, but is a collection of symptoms or syndromes that occur due to an imbalance in the vestibular system or a disturbance in the central nervous system. In addition, vertigo can also occur due to interference with the body's balance tool consisting of receptors in the visual (retina), vestibulum (semicircular canal) and proprioceptive (tendons, joints and deep sensibility).

2 Vertigo, Symptoms, Causes and How to Overcome
Humans walk on two legs relatively less stable than other creatures that walk on four legs. This causes humans to need more information about body position relative to the environment. In addition, movement information is also needed in order to continue to adapt to changes around it. This information is obtained from the body's balance system involving the semicircular canal as the receptor, vestibular system, and cerebellum as the information processor. Besides that the function of vision and proprioceptive also play a role in providing information on the sense of attitude and movement of the limbs. The system is interconnected and influences to be processed in the central nervous system.

Vertigo, Symptoms, Causes and How to Overcome

Vertigo is not a disease of its own but a symptom of the disease in which the lesion is located and the cause is different. Therefore, every vertigo sufferer must take a careful and directed history and examination to determine the shape of vertigo, the location of the lesion, and the cause. Dizziness or vertigo is caused by disruption of the body's balance tool which results in a mismatch between the actual body position and what is perceived by the central nervous system. On history taking, the form of vertigo was asked whether it was floating, spinning and so on.

The clinical approach to vertigo complaints is aimed at differentiating central vertigo whose abnormalities are related to the central nervous system or peripheral vertigo associated with the vestibular system. In addition, psychological or psychiatric factors must be considered that can underlie complaints of vertigo. Systemic factors that must also be considered include cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, hypotension, congestive heart failure, anemia, and hypoglycemia. The diagnosis of vertigo begins with determining the shape of vertigo, the location of the lesion, and then the cause, so that appropriate therapy and symptomatic therapy can be given.

Physical examinations carried out included examination of blood pressure measured in a lying, sitting and standing position, carotid noise, heart rate rhythm, and peripheral pulse pulses. Neurological examinations that can be done include:

Romberg test
The patient stands with both feet pressed together first with both eyes open and then closed. Leave it in that position for 20-30 seconds. It must be ensured that the patient cannot determine his position for example with the help of a particular point of light or sound. In vestibular abnormalities only in the eyes closed the patient's body will sway away from the midline then back again, in the open eye the patient's body remains upright. While in cerebral abnormalities the patient's body will sway both in the open eye and in the closed eye.

Tandem Gait
Patients walking with the heel of the left or right foot are placed at the tip of the toe
Right or left alternately. In vestibular abnormalities, the journey will deviate and the cerebellar disorder will tend to fall.

Unterberger test
The patient stands with both arms horizontally forward and walks in place by lifting the knee as high as possible for one minute. In vestibular abnormalities the patient's position will deviate or rotate towards the lesion with a movement like a person throwing a disc, ie the head and body rotate in the direction of the lesion, both arms move towards the lesion with the arm on the side of the lesion down and the other rises. This condition is accompanied by nystagmus with a slow phase toward the lesion.

Test Appoint Barany
The patient is instructed to lift his arm up with the index finger extended and the arm straight forward, then lowered to touch the examiner's index finger. This is done repeatedly with eyes open and closed. In vestibular abnormalities, the patient's arm is deviated towards the lesion.

Babinsky Weil Test
The patient walks five steps forward and five steps back for a minute with his eyes closed repeatedly. If there is a unilateral vestibular disorder, the patient will walk in a star-shaped direction.

Signs and Symptoms of Vertigo

Signs or general symptoms of vertigo are feeling headaches, sensations of head spinning, loss of balance when standing. The sign will trigger the sufferer to experience nausea, vomiting, sweating, sometimes even accompanied by nystagmus, ringing in the ears and the sensation of falling.

Usually, this condition will disappear and can last for several minutes, hours, or even days. If the symptoms do not go away, please do a further examination, because vertigo is one sign of a more serious disease such as a brain tumor.

Causes of Vertigo

The appearance of Vertigo can be caused by interference with the inner ear. This disorder will trigger the problem of the body's balance mechanism. There are two types of vertigo that are grouped based on their causes. The following causes of peripheral vertigo:

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Considered to be the most common cause of vertigo, it usually disappears itself in 4 to 6 weeks. Currently it is associated with unstable otoconia conditions. Physical therapy and Brandt-Daroff maneuver are dated more effectively than medical.

Meniere's disease
Considered to be due to the widening and periodic rupture of the endolymphatic compartment in the inner ear, in addition to vertigo usually accompanied by tinnitus, and hearing loss.

Vestibular Neuritis
Is a self limiting disease, thought to be caused by a viral infection, if accompanied by hearing loss is called labyrinthitis.

Head injury
People who have had a previous head injury, may experience deep ear disorders which then cause vertigo.

Labirintitis is inflammation and infection that occurs in the inner ear. Inner ear infections are usually caused by viruses and bacteria.

While the causes of vertigo central include:

Unbearable headaches accompanied by throbbing pain. Migraine is considered as one of the common causes of vertigo to appear.

Multiple Sclerosis
A nervous signal disorder occurs in the central nervous system of the brain and spine caused by errors in a person's immune system.

Acoustic Neuroma
Benign tumors that grow on the vestibular nerve, the nervous system that connects the ear to the brain.

Symptoms of Stroke
Stroke is a blockage of blood vessels that occurs in the brain. Vertigo can also be an early symptom of stroke.

And so forth

How to overcome to Vertigo

Vertigo is a symptom of being not a disease. Therefore, in how to deal with vertigo depends on the disease that causes it. And some vertigo also can heal itself. This may occur because the brain manages to adapt to changes in the inner ear. But there are also several causes of vertigo that require special handling steps including:

Using drruug that has been recommended by a doctor

Epley maneuver for vertigo caused by Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

Vestibular rehabilitation therapy serves to help the brain to adapt to changes in the inner ear.
Such is the review of vertigo, symptoms, causes and how to overcome. In this paper, the aim is for the reader to know more about vertigo, and thank you for reading.

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