Uveitis, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. What is Uveitis ? Uveitis is an uvea inflammation that can cause blindness. Uveitis can be caused by inflammation in the uvea alone, is part of autoimmune systemic disease, infection, malignancy, expansion of inflammation in the cornea and sclera, trauma, but some of the causes are unknown. Anterior uveitis is inflammation in the iris and ciliary body with symptoms of pain, red eyes, photophobia, and decreased visual acuity. Intermediate uveitis is inflammation in pars plana but is often followed by vitritis and posterior uveitis. Symptoms of intermediate uveitis are usually mild, not accompanied by pain and red eyes but sharp vision can be reduced due to macular edema and cell aggregation in the vitreous.
Posterior uveitis is inflammation of the choroid and retina that often occurs in developing countries because of high toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, HIV infection. Patients complain of blurred vision but without red eyes, pain, or photophobia. Complications of posterior uveitis are cataracts, glaucoma, macular edema, keratopathy, vitreous opacification, retinal detachment, and optic nerve atrophy. Posterior uveitis is worse than anterior uveitis. Panuveitis is inflammation of the entire uvea layer. The diagnosis of uveitis is based on history, physical and eye examination, laboratory examination and imaging.
Uveitis, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome
Uveitis therapy is aimed at suppressing inflammation, improving the structure and function of vision, relieving pain and photophobia. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are the preferred way to deal with inflammation while NSAIDs can reduce pain and cycloplegic to prevent posterior synechiae. Antimicrobials are given when uveitis is caused by infection. The disease underlying uveitis must be addressed comprehensively to prevent worsening, complications and blindness.
Uveitis is inflammation of the uvea, namely the iris, ciliary body and choroid which can cause blindness. In developed countries, 10% of blindness in the productive age population is due to uveitis. Uveitis can be caused by abnormalities in the eye alone or is part of systemic, traumatic, iatrogenic and infection disorders, but as many as 20-30% of uveitis cases are idiopathic. Anatomically, uveitis is divided into anterior uveitis, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis.
The incidence of anterior uveitis in developed countries is higher than in developing countries because the expression of human leukocyte antigen which is a predisposing factor for anterior uveitis, is higher in developed countries. Posterior uveitis is the fifth cause of blindness in developing countries such as South America, India and Africa because of the high rates of infectious diseases, especially toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, HIV. Panuveitis is inflammation of the entire uvea and its surroundings such as the vitreus, retina, and optic nerves. The most common causes are tuberculosis, vogt koyanagi harada syndrome, ophthalmia sympathy, and behcet disease.
Symptoms of uveitis are generally mild but can be severe and cause complications if blindness is not managed properly. In addition, uveitis can cause inflammation of surrounding tissues such as sclera, retina, and optic nerves, which worsens the course of the disease and increases complications. Because uveitis can cause blindness, doctors must be able to establish a clinical diagnosis, provide initial therapy, determine referrals and follow up on patients who have returned referrals that have been managed by a specialist.
Acute anterior uveitis generally occurs in one eye but in chronic cases it can involve both eyes. Acute anterior uveitis can be caused by trauma, post-surgery, and hypersensitivity reactions. The frequency of chronic anterior uveitis is less frequent and generally asymptomatic but can cause complications such as cataracts and glaucoma. Anterior uveitis in children increases complications of strabismus, keratopathy, cataracts, macular edema, and glaucoma which interfere with vision and trigger amblyopia so that it needs to be treated aggressively.
Types of Uveitis
Based on the location of inflammation, uveitis is divided into several types including:
1. Uveitis in the middle uvea (uveitis intermedia or cyclitis). Inflammation occurs between the iris and choroid.
2. Uveitis in the front vein (iritis or anterior uveitis). Inflammation occurs in the iris.
3. Uveitis in all uvea (panuveitis). Occurs when the entire uvea layer is inflamed.
4. Uveitis in the back uvea (choroiditis or posterior uveitis). Inflammation occurs in the choroid section.
Signs and Symptoms of Uveitis
Symptoms of anterior uveitis are generally mild-moderate and can heal on their own, but in severe uveitis, visual acuity can decrease. Clinical symptoms can include red eyes, pain, photophobia, and decreased visual acuity. Anterior uveitis causes ciliary muscle spasm and pupillary sphincter which cause pain, throbbing and photophobia. If the dissertation is great, it is necessary to suspect an increase in eye pressure. The sphincter pupillary spasm results in miosis and triggers posterior synechiae. Decrease in visual acuity mainly due to aquatic fluid opacification and corneal edema although uveitis does not always cause corneal edema.
Signs of acute anterior uveitis are ciliary injection due to vasodilation of the posterior longus ciliary artery and the anterior ciliary arteries which bleed the iris and ciliary body. In the front of the eye chamber there is inflammation of the cell, removal of protein and inflammatory cell deposits in the corneal endothelium. Fine keratic precipitates are generally due to nongranulomatous inflammation and coarse keratic precipitates associated with granulomatous inflammation.
The duration of the patient has uveitis, it depends on the severity:
Acute uveitis, which is a type of uveitis that develops in less than three months.
Chronic Uveitis, when inflammation occurs continuously for more than three months.
Causes of Uveitis
Uveitis is often unknown, sometimes uveitis can attack healthy people. However, most of uveitis is associated with autoimmune disorders, some of the autoimmune conditions associated with uveitis include:
Psoriasis, which is skin inflammation.
Rheumatoid arthritis, which is joint inflammation.
Sarcoidosis, which is inflammation that occurs in various parts of the body, such as the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin.
Ankylosing spondylitis, which is inflammation of the joints in the spine.
Ulcerative colitis, which is inflammation of the large intestine.
Kawasaki disease, which is inflammation of the blood vessel wall.
Crohn's Disease, which is inflammation that occurs in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
In addition, uveitis can also be caused by:
HIV / AIDS.
How to Overcome Uveitis
In how to overcome Uveitis depends on the severity of the patient. If it is chronic, it is necessary to do further treatment such as making a diagnosis by a doctor first, as a first step in handling. But you can change your lifestyle to help treat uveitis by consuming enough vitamin E to help improve vision for people with uveitis. Taking vitamin E with vitamin C can improve vision, but does not reduce swelling in people with uveitis.
Such are the reviews of uveitis, causes, symptoms and how overcome Uveitis. In this paper, the aim is for the reader to know more about what Uveitis is, and thank you for reading.