3 Parotid Tumors, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Parotid tumors, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. What is Parotid tumors ? Parotid tumors are tumors that attack the parotid gland. Of every 5 salivary gland tumors, 4 were localized in the parotid gland, 1 was from the small salivary gland or submandibular and 30% was malignant. Parotid malignant tumors in children are rarely found. The most common tumor in children is mukoepidermoid carcinoma. The period in the salivary glands can become malignant as you age. The prevalence of malignant tumors that usually occurs in people over the age of 40 is 25% of parotid tumors.


3 Parotid Tumors, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome
Parotid Tumors
The salivary glands have an important role in the digestive process and anti-microbial activity in the oral cavity. In general, these glands are divided into the major salivary glands and minor salivary glands. Salivary glands are spread in the mucosa of the oral cavity and oropharynx. This gland amounts to 600-1000 glands that produce only a small fraction of the salivary glands. In general, pathological abnormalities occur in the parotid and submandibular glands. Only a few occur in the sublingual gland and minor glands.

Parotid Tumors, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

In the oral cavity there are 3 large salivary glands namely the parotid gland, submandibular gland and sublingual gland. The parotid gland is the largest major salivary gland and occupies space in front of the mastoid process and the outer ear canal. The parotid gland has two lobes, the superficial lobe, which is 80% in size, and the deep lobe is 20% in size. These two lobes are connected by ismus. Between these two lobes there is also a facial nerve branch.

The parotid gland is the largest major salivary gland. Located in the space between the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible and the process of the temporal mastoid alice bone. The external acoustic canal and glenoid fossa are located above the zygomatic process. The inside is the styloid process, inferior to the parotid often overlaps with the mandibular angle, the deep surface close to the first cervical vertebral transverse process.

The shape of the parotid gland varies, often in the form of a triangle with an inferior peak. But it can also be a cube or a triangle with a peak in the superior. The average length is 6 cm with a maximum width of 3.3 cm. In the population there is a small additional lobe that emerges from the upper border of the parotid duct in front of the main gland.

The parotid gland is the only salivary gland to have two layers of lymph nodes. The superficial layer consists of 3 to 20 nodules, located between the gland and the capsule. This nodule receives lymphatic drainage from the parotid gland, external acoustic canal, pinna, eyelid scalp and lacrimal nerve. The second layer is inside the parotid gland and drains lymphatics from the parotid gland, external acoustic canal, middle ear, nasopharynx, and mole palate. These two layers of lymph nodes drain lymphatic fluid into the lymph system in deep cervical.

The submandibular gland is the second largest salivary gland after the parotid gland. This gland produces mucoid and serous discharge, located in the submandibular triangle which is anterior and posteriorly formed by the digastric muscle and inferior to the mandible. This gland is medial and inferior to the ramus of the mandible and is around the milohioid muscle, forming the letter (C) and forming superficial and deep lobes. The superficial lobe of the submandibular gland is in the lateral sublingual space.

The deep lobe is inferior to the milohioid muscle and is the largest part of the gland. This gland is lined with neck fascia in the superficial part. Secretion flows from the Wharton channel and then exits from the medial surface gland and travels between the milohioid muscle and the hioglosus muscle to the genioglossus muscle. This duct is approximately 5 cm long, running together with the hypoglossal nerve inferior and the lingual nerve superior, then ending in the oral cavity lateral to the lingual frenulum at the base of the mouth.
The sublingual gland is the smallest major salivary gland. This gland is in the mucosa at the base of the mouth, and consists of asini cells that secrete mucus. This gland is bordered by the mandible and genioglossal muscles on the lateral side, while the inferior part is bounded by the milohioid muscle.

Signs or Symptoms of Parotid Tumors

Signs or symptoms of parotid benign tumors are often found as follows:

The appearance of a lump on the face, usually observed when washing your face or shaving.
Paralysis of the facial nerve, paralysis of the facial nerve is mainly caused by the appearance of a lump in the parotid that has a malignant possibility. However, most paralysis of the facial nerve is due to Bell's Palsy.

The appearance of a lump on the base or end of the parotid rats.

Facial pain, pain appears usually more due to a broken tumor or invasion of a malignant tumor to other tissues.

While the signs or symptoms of parotid malignant tumors are as follows:

Enlargement of the lump.

The appearance of wounds and hardening of the mucosa or skin around the tumor.

Weakening of the facial nerve.

The appearance of increasingly severe pain.

The occurrence of numbness in the area around the lump.

Causes of Parotid Tumors

The cause of benign or malignant parotid tumors can be caused by DNA mutations in parotid gland cells. Mutations in DNA cause parotid gland cells to divide rapidly. Cells that undergo this division will form tumors and if they are malignant enough to form cancerous tissue. Some factors that can increase a person's risk of getting a parotid tumor are as follows:

Exposure to radiation
Radiation for handling cancer in the head or neck can increase the risk of developing tumors in the parotid gland.

Age
Although parotid gland tumors can occur to anyone, the sufferer is generally elderly.

Virus infection
Examples of viruses associated with the appearance of tumors in the salivary glands are HIV and Epstein-Barr virus.

Sm0king habits.
Smoxing habits increase a person's risk of getting a parotid tumor eight times greater, compared to those who don't.

Exposure to certain ingredients.
Some people working on asbestos mining, pipe mills or rubber factories have a higher risk of developing salivary gland tumors.

Cellphone use.
Some studies show that there is a suspicion between the continuous use of cell phones and the risk of parotid gland tumors.

How to Overcome Parotid Tumors

In how to deal with parotid tumors carried out with the aim to remove the tumor tissue, and prevent the tumor from recurring. Some types of treatment that can treat common benign and malignant parotid tumors are as follows:

With operation
Deep lobe parotidectomy or total parotidectomy is performed if the tumor occurs in the inner parotid gland or the tumor size is large enough.
Superficial parotidectomy is performed by cutting a portion of the parotid gland surrounding the tumor.

Chemotherapy
If a benign tumor of the parotid gland has developed into a malignant tumor and spreads to other parts of the body chemotherapy can be done.

Radiotherapy.
Radiation therapy can be done if the tumor is too large to prevent surgery, radiotherapy can be used instead of surgery to kill tumor cells.

Thus reviews of parotid tumors, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. In this paper, the aim is to make the reader more familiar with parotid tumors, and thank you for reading.

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