3 Yellow Fever Disease, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Yellow fever disease, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. What is Yellow Fever ? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and other species found in tropical and subtropical regions in South America and Africa. In the case of yellow fever, it can cause death worldwide every year. Although yellow fever has never been reported in large numbers, this region remains at risk because the conditions needed for transmission are present.

3 Yellow Fever Disease, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome
Yellow Fever
In the last century yellow fever outbreaks have been reported in North America such as New York, Charleston, New Orleans, Philadelphia and Europe such as England, France, Italy, Ireland, Spain and Portugal. Fatality cases range from 20% to more than 50%. Most cases and deaths in Africa are caused by yellow fever which is a major public health problem and occurs in epidemic patterns. Thirty-two countries in Africa are now considered at risk of yellow fever with a total population of 610 million people and more than 219 million of them live in urban areas.

Yellow Fever disease, Causes, Symptoms and How to Overcome

Although this disease usually causes sporadic cases, almost all major urban centers in the American tropics have been reinfested with Aedes aegypti. The most vulnerable people are residents who live in urban areas because of low immunization coverage. In America, in urban areas it has an epidemic area that has a greater risk in the last 50 years. The density and habitat of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been expanded in both urban and rural areas. This disease was originally imported from Africa to America

Signs and Symptoms of Yellow Fever

Yellow fever can have the first two symptoms of fever and the skin becomes yellow. This occurs due to liver damage, hepatitis. For some people, the sufferer has no symptoms from the start, but for some others, the first symptoms appear 3 to 6 days after exposure to the virus from mosquito bites. If the infection has been acute, you can experience signs and symptoms, such as :


Muscle pain, especially on the back and knees

Sensitive to light

Nausea or vomiting


No appetite


Eyes, face, or tongue become red

The above signs and symptoms will disappear within a few days. Although signs and symptoms can disappear 1 to 2 days after the acute phase, some people with acute yellow fever enter the toxic stage. At this stage, acute signs and symptoms return, even worsen and endanger lives, such as:

Liver and kidney failure

Brain dysfunction, including delirium, convulsions and coma.

The skin turns yellow

Abdominal pain and vomiting

Reduced urination

Bleeding from the nose, mouth and eyes

Slow heartbeat

The toxic stage of yellow fever can be fatal. Which can cause death in patients.

Causes of Yellow Fever

Yellow fever can be transmitted by humans through haemagogus mosquito bites or aedes mosquitoes, there are three types of transmission including.

1. Sylvatic yellow fever
In tropical rain forests, yellow fever occurs in monkeys infected with wild mosquitoes. Infected monkeys then transmit the virus to mosquitoes. Insects such as infected mosquitoes bite humans who enter the forest, which can cause disease yellow fever. Most infections occur in young men who work in the forest.
2. Yellow fever intermediates
In the humid parts of Africa, mosquitoes that breed at home infect humans. Increased contact between humans and infected mosquitoes causes transmission. Many villages that are far apart in an area can suffer cases simultaneously. This is the most common type of outbreak in Africa. Outbreaks can become more severe epidemics if infection is carried out in areas of the population with domestic mosquitoes and people who have not been vaccinated.

3. Urban yellow fever
Large outbreaks occur when infected people transmit the virus to densely populated areas with a high number of vulnerable people and Aedes mosquitoes. Infected mosquitoes transmit the virus from person to person.

How to Prevent Yellow Fever

1. Vaccination
Vaccination is the most important to prevent yellow fever. In area at high risk of developing yellow fever where vaccination needs are low, in controlling outbreaks through immunization is very important to prevent epidemics. For the prevention of outbreaks in all areas affected, the need for vaccination must reach at least 60% to 80% of the population at risk. Few new endemic countries benefit from mass vaccination campaigns. Preventive vaccination can be done with way routine immunization and one baby mass campaign to increase vaccination coverage in risky countries, as well as for tourists to endemic areas of yellow fever.

WHO strongly recommends routine yellow fever vaccination for children in areas at risk for this disease. Yellow fever vaccine is safe and affordable, giving effective resistance to yellow fever in one week for 95% of those who are vaccinated. And provide protection for 30-35 years or more, and possibly for life. The risk of death from yellow fever far outweighs the risks associated with vaccines.

Counter vaccination indications include:

1. Patients who are allergic to egg protein.

2. Pregnant women, except during an outbreak of yellow fever when the risk of infection is high.

3. Children less than 9 months old for routine immunization (or less than 6 months during the epidemic).

4. People with severe immunodeficiency due to symptoms of HIV / AIDS or other causes.

2. Avoid mosquito bites
Wear the right clothes to reduce mosquito bites. When the weather permits, wear long sleeves, trousers and socks when outdoors. Mosquitoes can bite through thin clothing. The bite time for many mosquito species is dusk until dawn. Take extra care to use mosquito protective clothing in the morning, during the day and at night to avoid outdoor activities in areas where Yellow Fever is at risk.

3. Control of mosquitoes
In some situations, mosquito control is the provision of vaccinations. The risk of transmission of this disease in urban areas can be minimized by eliminating potential mosquito breeding grounds and applying insecticides to water, which is an early stage of mosquito development. Spray insecticide application to kill mosquitoes, combined with an emergency vaccination campaign, can reduce or stop the transmission of yellow fever Historically, the campaign to control Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was eliminated.

How to Overcome Yellow Fever

There is no way to deal specifically with yellow fever, only supportive treatment to deal with dehydration and fever. Related bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics. Supportive care can improve outcomes for severely ill people, but supportive care in hospitals such as:

Maintain normal blood pressure

Change blood loss

Provide fluid and oxygen

Overcoming other infections that appear

Provides dialysis for kidney failure

Some people receive plasma transfusions to replace blood proteins that trigger blood clots.
If you have yellow fever, you must be inside the house, away from mosquitoes, to avoid spreading the disease. If you have experienced yellow fever, you will be immune to this disease for the rest of your life.

Thus are some yellow fever disease, causes, symptoms and how to overcome. In this paper, the aim is for the reader to get to know more about the diseases in the world, and thank you for reading.

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